( 90 resources listed here )

Literature (general)
http://www.sowas.gr (2000-00-00)
Language: de

Clough, G. Wayne
2013Best of Both Worlds. Museums, Libraries, and Archives in a Digital Age. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Press. 75 p. ISBN: 978-0-9819500-1-3
http://www.si.edu/bestofbothworlds (2015-10-01)
The secretary general of the Smithsonian Institution explains how his institution manages the reconciliation of the physical museum and the digital world. The goal is to use the best of both worlds. A central role plays the ‘Smithsonian experience’ of the visit in person that is to be extended to the virtual visit as digital technology becomes more pervasive. The Institution offers content and the audience will copy Smithsonian content at schools and homes and use digitized collections to put together their own stories and exhibitions. The connections the users make will be as diverse as the individuals themselves.
Language: EN

Dierickx, Barbara (PACKED vzw) and Julien Brouillard, Claire Loucopoulos (Dédale)
2013Report on existing tools and devices related to narrative approaches and requirement functionalities
http://athenaplus.eu/getFile.php?id=178 (2015-10-01)
This Report rovides an overview of existing tools and applications that may serve as examples for the development of the creative applications for the (re)use of digital cultural heritage content that will be developed in the AthenaPlus Project. The report is composed of three parts: it starts off with a theoretical introduction to the concept of narrative and digital storytelling. This is followed by an overview of common features for data, tools and supports that are needed in the realisation of digital stories, and ends with an overview of relevant components that might be implemented in the online AthenaPlus application environment.
Language: en

Petrelli, Daniela, Luigina Ciolfi, Dick van Dijk, Eva Hornecker, Elena Not, and Albrecht Schmidt
2013Integrating Material and Digital: A New Way for Cultural Heritage. In: ACM Interactions Magazine 20 (4) 2013: 58-63.
The paper describes the crossover between virtual and physical interactions in smart exhibits. The authors, all co-workers in the EU project meSch, suggest a tool that integrates physical and digital assets in an exhibition. This approach seems particularly appealing, as it enables renewed focus on the physical heritage and, at the same time, digital capabilities specifically tailored to fit the curator’s vision as well as the visitor’s personalized experience. Existing tools have high technical hurdles, new tools should be as simple as building with Legos and have the possibility for sharing interactions and templates.
Language: EN

Schweibenz, Werner
2013Museum Exhibitions - The Real and the Virtual Ones: An Account of a Complex Relation. Uncommon Culture - Journal of the ATHENA Project
http://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/UC/article/view/4715 (2015-10-05)
This article analyses some major issues of the complex relation between real and virtual museum exhibitions. A hindering aspect for creating virtual exhibitions seems to be the relation between object and reproduction on the one hand and mediated and unmediated museum experience on the other, including the intricate issue of the aura of the original object.
Language: EN

Verboom, Jessica and Payal Arora
2013Museum 2.0: A study into the culture of expertise within the museum blogosphere. In: First Monday - Peer-reviewed Journal on the Internet, 18 (8) 2013.
http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/4538/3735 (2015-10-05)
Although the paper focuses on social media issues, it also contains some interesting topics on expertise in the museum field in general. An interesting aspect is the internal shift of power from museum educators as ‘educational gatekeepers’ to other experts inside the museum (e.g. marketing professionals, digital curators) as wells to ‘amateur experts’ in the audience. This effect does not only affect social media but also digital exhibitions.
Language: EN

Dziekan, Vince
2012Virtuality and the Art of Exhibition. Curatorial Design for the Multimedial Museum. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. 207 p. ISBN 978-1-84150-476-6
The book consists of two parts. The first part addresses the theory of virtuality in relation to exhibition, especially the relation of spatial practice and digital mediation. Dziekan focuses on the special quality of virtuality and how it can be included in the curatorial design of an exhibition. The second part presents concrete examples of exhibitions that put that theory into practice combining exhibition design with digital objects from multimedia sound installations to virtual objects using a curatorial narrative to offer visitors experience and immersion.
Language: EN

Schweibenz, Werner
2012How to create the worst online exhibition possible - in the best of intention. (English version of "Wie gestaltet man in bester Absicht eine schlechte Online-Ausstellung? Einige Hinweise aus der Forschungsliteratur")
http://swop.bsz-bw.de/volltexte/2012/1064/ (2015-10-05)
The article describes the major pitfalls that should be avoided in creating online exhibitions; it is based a review of the research literature covering a wide range of publications and studies in the museum field.
Language: EN

Müller, Klaus
2011Going Global: Reaching Out for the Online Visitor. American Association of Museums.
http://kmlink.home.xs4all.nl/ (2015-10-01)
not yet commented
Language: EN

Pujol-Tost, Laia
2011Integrating ICT in Exhibitions. Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship, 26 (1) 2011: 63-79.
Museums have widely adopted information and communication technologies because it fits in with several aspects of postmodern museological trends. These technologies offer virtuality, interactivity and multiplicity of interfaces. However, integrating them into the physical visit seems complicated. A study conducted in the Manchester area and London identified six factors in the use and effectiveness of technologies in exhibitions.
Language: EN

Schweibenz, Werner
2011"Wie gestaltet man in bester Absicht eine schlechte Online-Ausstellung? Einige Hinweise aus der Forschungsliteratur, Museumskunde 76, 1/2011. 90-99.
The article describes the major pitfalls that should be avoided in creating online exhibitions; it is based a review of the research literature covering a wide range of publications and studies in the museum field. (An English version is available.)
Language: GE

Wilson, Ross J.
2011Behind the Scenes of the Museum Website. In: Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship, 26 (4) 2011: 373-389.
The museum website is considered a central feature of an institution’s work. Therefore this paper explores the similarities rather than the differences between the virtual and real museum experience and investigates the manner in which the online representations of institutions are structured in comparable ways to the exhibitions and displays housed in museums. The author looks into the means by which museum websites are ‘read’ by computers and created by markup and programme languages. However, the paper is not a technical study of website design but uses the concepts derived from ‘critical code studies’ to examine computer ‘languages’ in the light of theories of intertextuality and critical discourse analysis. The computer languages which are used to create museum websites are assessed as analogous to the ‘traditional’ museum discourse which structures visitor experiences in ‘reality’. An online catalogue entitled ‘Ancient Cyprus in the British Museum’ is the focus of the study. The online experience for the visitor is analysed according to categories such as Genres, Discourses, and Styles.
Language: En

Lubczynska, Aleksandra
2010Wystawy wirtualne - nowoczesna forma prezentacji biblioteki i jej zbiorów. In: Stare i nowe w bibliotece : współpraca czy konkurencja : konferencja Biblioteki Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego : materiały konferencyjne
http://bcul.lib.uni.lodz.pl/publication/2490 (2015-10-01)
Virtual exhibitions as a new form of presentation of libraries and their collections.
Language: PL

Norris, Chris
2010It’s Not the Size of the Online Collection … Museum (AAM) January/February 2010: 25-27.
Collections database can be searched via the Web, virtual visitors are confronted with fields into which they type search words and get back a list providing minimal information. This may serve the needs of the relatively small fraction of the public who are professional users of collections but not for public education. Traditional Web interfaces of this sort are next to useless.
Language: EN

Sylaiou, Stella, Katerina Mania, Athanasis Karoulis and Martin White
2010Exploring the relationship between presence and enjoyment in a virtual museum. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68 (5) 2010: 243-253.
The paper describes the Augmented Representation of Cultural Objects (ARCO) system, developed as a part of an EU ICT project. ARCO implement educational kiosks placed in a real-world museum, in this case the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The paper presents a usability study investigating the participants’ perceived ’sense of being there’ while enjoying a virtual museum exhibition.
Language: EN

Brim, Richenda
2009From Custodians to Disseminators: Libraries and Digital Exhibitions
http://besser.tsoa.nyu.edu/impact/f01/Papers/Brim/digi_ex.htm (2015-10-01)
Paper about Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital Exhibitions in Libraries.
Language: en

Foo, Schubert
2009From digital archives to virtual exhibitions, in: Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Na, Jin-Cheon (eds.): Handbook of Research on Digital Libraries: Design, Development and Impact. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. 88-100.
http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/sfoo/publications/2009/2009Handbook-DL-SF_fmt.pdf (2015-10-01)
Language: EN

Kelly, Lynda and Susan Groundwater-Smith
2009Revisioning the Physical and Online-Museum. A Partnership with the Coalition of Knowledge Building Schools. Journal of Museum Education, 34, 4, 2009: 55-68.
The paper describes three projects of the Australian Museum Sydney and the Coalition of Knowledge Building Schools with 20 schools on how young people want to feel welcomed and supported, and relate museums exhibitions. Lessons learned included that students had mixed views about the museum’s presence on social networking sites such as MySpace and content-sharing sites like YouTube and Flickr.
Language: EN

Salsa, Alena
2009Museum im Wandel. Vom Tempel der Kunst zum Tempel der Besucher? Eine Studie zur Berliner Museumslandschaft. [Changing Museums. From Temple of the Arts to-wards a Temple of the Visitors? A Study From Berlin Museums.] Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag
Some parts of the book refer to online exhibitions.
Language: GE

Trant, Jennifer
2009Studying Social Tagging and Folksonomy: A Review and Framework. In: Journal of Digital Information (JoDI), Special Issue on Digital Libraries and User-Generated Content, 10 (1)
http://journals.tdl.org/jodi/index.php/jodi/article/view/269/278 (2015-10-05)
Social tagging refers to the practice of publicly labeling or categorizing resources in a shared, on-line environment. When shared with others, or viewed in the context of what others have tagged, these collections of resource identifiers, tags and people begin to take on additional value through network effects. Searching tags can enable the discovery of relevant resources. Motivations for tagging are a sense of ownership of content, and social cohesion in a group.
Language: EN

Chalmers, Matthew and Areti Galani
2008Blurring Boundaries for Museum Visitors. Museum Informatics. People, Information, and Technology in Museums, edited by P. F. Marty and K. Burton Jones. New York, NY: Routledge
New Media allow new forms of visitor experiences. The paper suggests that museum visits are social events and explores a visitor-centred approach using ethno-methodology to analyse social conduct and technology-mediated sociality in museums. Analysis of an exhibition.
Language: EN

Economou, Maria
2008A World of Interactive Exhibits. Museum Informatics. People, Information, and Technology in Museums. Edited by Paul F. Marty and Katherine Burton Jones. New York, NY: Routledge. 137-156.
Digital media have changed the way visitors are experiencing exhibitions and cultural content. However, the idea of interactivity is not easy to define. Various types of interactive applications. The virtual visit is a very different experience to the real one, for which it can never be a substitute. In addition, the virtual visit lacks the social context, which plays a fundamental role during the visit to a museum.
Language: EN

Foo, Schubert
2008Online virtual exhibitions: Concept and design considerations, DESIDOC (Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre) Bulletin of Information Technology, 28(4) 2008: 22-34.
http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/sfoo/publications/2008/2008DESIDOC_fmt.pdf (2015-10-01)
Online virtual exhibitions are described as a tools to overcomes space, time and location restrictions and allows global visitors to access museum information. They can offer alternative experiences to the "real thing" and offer more content, active participation and contribution by visitors. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review.
Language: EN

Haley Goldman, Kate, Kirsten Ellenbogen, and John Falk
2008Understanding the Motivations of Museum Audiences. Museum Informatics. People, Information, and Technology in Museums, edited by P. F. Marty and K. Burton Jones. New York, NY: Routledge. 187-194.
Review of research on museum-going audiences and their motivation. Research suggests that the motivations of visitors to museum Web sites differ significantly from the motivations of visitors to physical museums. Physical museum-goers seek experiences and have high opportunity costs while virtual visitors invest little and search for information.
Language: EN

Institute of Museum and Library Services
2008InterConnections: The IMLS National Study on the Use of Libraries, Museums and the Internet. Conclusions Summary. José-Marie Griffiths, Donald W. King, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
http://interconnectionsreport.org/ (2015-10-01)
A report for the U. S. Institute of Museum and Library Services consisting of five subreports. Some findings are: 1) libraries and museums evoke consistent, extraordinary public trust among diverse adult users. 2) Available information inspires the search for more information. 3) Internet use is positively related to in-person visits to museums and libraries. 4) Museums and public libraries serve important and complementary roles in supporting a wide variety of information needs.
Language: EN

Roberto, R.V.
2008A critical look at online exhibitions and online collections: When creating one resource is more effective than the other. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, Vol. 28, No. 4, July 2008: 63-71.
http://publications.drdo.gov.in/ojs/index.php/djlit/article/viewFile/198/106 (2014-02-15)
The paper describes an online exhibition on the British Slave Trade Legacies of 1807. It offers a list of important features, a definition of exhibitions, and a list comparing different features of online exhibitions. Based on this list it identifies successful website criteria.
Language: EN

Schweibenz, Werner
2008Know Thy Visitors: Personas for Visitor-centered Museums. The International Journal of the Inclusive Museum, 1 (2) 2008: 103-109.
In order to become more inclusive, museums have to apply their knowledge from audience research. But this is easier said than done as research provides abstract statistical figures which are difficult to apply in projects and daily work. The personas method, developed for marketing projects and information design in computer science, can provide a solution for this dilemma. It uses archetypical user representations based on quantitative and/or qualitative data.
Language: EN

Schweibenz, Werner
2008Wer sind die Besucher des virtuellen Museums und welche Interessen haben sie? In: i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien, 2/2008: 11-17.
http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/icom.2008.7.issue-2/icom.2008.0017/icom.2008.0017.xml (2015-10-05)
The paper is based on an analysis of the international research literature and tries to answer the following questions: how correspond museum visits and Internet usage in Germany, what are the information needs of virtual museum visitors and how do they behave, how do they deal with high-tech Web sites? From the analysis some conclusions are drawn for the application on virtual museums on the Internet.
Language: Ge

Trant, Jennifer
2008Tagging, Folksonomy and Art Museums: Results of steve.museum’s Research
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/files/trantSteveResearchReport2008.pdf (2014-09-27)
This paper reports the current implementations of tagging in museums, summarizes the research questions, reviews the methods adopted by steve.museum. Social tagging respectively user tags might help to bridge the gap between professional and public discourse by providing a source of terms not in museum documentation. User tags could enhance the number and kind of access points for works of art, and improve recall through the presence of more index terms.
Language: EN

Costanza Caraffa, Brigitte Reineke, and Werner Schweibenz
2007Die Online-Ausstellungen der Florentiner Photo¬thek - Konzeption und Realisierung. [The Online Exhibitions of the Photo Library of the Kunsthistorisches Institut - Max-Planck-Institut in Florence.] Electronic Images and the Visual Arts - EVA 2007 Berlin,
Project report describing the design and implementation of online exhibitions of an art photo library. The target groups are both art historians and a general public.
Language: GE

Griffiths, José-Marie and Donald W. King
2007Physical Spaces and Virtual Visitors: The Methodologies of Comprehensive Study of Users and Uses of Museums. International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting (ICHIM07) in Toronto, October 24-26, 2007. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics.
http://www.archimuse.com/ichim07/papers/griffiths/griffiths.html (2015-10-01)
A study conducted for the U. S. Institute of Museum and Library Services to evaluate the relationships between physical spaces, such as museums, their visitors and physical and virtual visits and uses. A conceptual model of potential users of online information is mapped against the findings of extensive surveys.
Language: EN

Griffiths, José-Marie, Donald W. King and Sarah E. Aerni
2007The Use, Usefulness and Value of Museums in the U.S. Museums and the Web 2007. Proceedings from the International Conference, San Francisco, CA, April 11-14, 2007. Pittsburgh, PA: Archives & Museum Informatics.
http://www.archimuse.com/mw2007/papers/griffiths/griffiths.html (2015-10-01)
A study conducted for the U. S. Institute of Museum and Library Services to evaluate the relationships between physical spaces, such as museums, their visitors and physical and virtual visits and uses. A conceptual model of potential users of online information is mapped against the findings of extensive surveys.
Language: EN

Haynes, Judy and Dan Zambonini
2007Why Are They Doing That!? How Users Interact With Museum Web Sites. Museums and the Web 2007. Proceedings from the International Conference, San Francisco, CA, April 11-14, 2007. Pittsburgh, PA: Archives & Museum Informatics.
http://www.archimuse.com/mw2007/papers/haynes/haynes.html (2015-10-01)
The study collects and analyses data of more than 100,000 user sessions from virtual visits to five museum web sites and looks into the use of information from sections such as home pages, visiting sections and event calendars.
Language: EN

Hazan, Susan
2007A Crisis of Authority. New Lamps for Old. Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage. A Critical Discourse. Ed. Fiona Cameron and Sarah Kenderdine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 133-147.
Museums are producing electronic scenarios that are enacted both inside and beyond the museum walls, many are disseminated over the Internet. New museum applications facilitate innovative hands-on, minds-on scenarios, extended user-driven experiences for both the local and remote visitors.
Language: EN

MacArthur, Matthew
2007Can Museums Allow Online Users to Become Participants? The Digital Museum. A Think Guide, edited by Herminia Din and Phyllis Hecht, Phyllis. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums. 57-66.
Web 2.0 will influence relationships with, and expectations of, museum audiences. Most social networks emerge in an organic, collaborative process, museums have found that it takes more than just a token institutional commitment to create a lively online community. At the heart of any discussion about museum and Web 2.0 lies the issue of authority; the notion of ‘radical trust,’ which suggests the need for a more intimate, equal relationship between museums and constituents. Museums are concerned how Internet savy users could reuse online digital content.
Language: EN

Thiel, Sarah Goodwin
2007Build It Once: A Basic Primer for the Creation of Online Exhibitions. The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
The book offers a chapter by chapter approach to creating online exhibitions, each chapter covering an important aspect such as definition of the exhibition, selection of equipment, structure, building of web pages. It also includes some guidelines for evaluation and an appendix on accessibility.
Language: EN

Cooper, Jonathan
2006Beyond the On-line Museum. Participatory Virtual Exhibitions. Museums and the Web 2006. Proceedings from the International Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 22-25, 2006 Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2006/papers/cooper/cooper.html (2015-10-01)
The paper examines some characteristics of the typical experiences of visiting a physical museum and an online museum. Physical museum visits are social as well as cultural venues while virtual visits are generally usually solitary experiences. Description of the development of a Virtual gallery for the Art Gallery of New South Wales.
Language: EN

Fichter, Darlene
2006Web 2.0, Library 2.0 and Radical Trust. A First Take (Webblog)
http://library.usask.ca/~fichter/blog_on_the_side/2006/04/web-2.html (2015-10-01)
The blog comments on user participation in the Social Web and why radical trust in the user community is necessary.
Language: EN

McTavish, Lianne
2006Visiting the Virtual Museum. Art and Experience Online. New museum theory and practice. An introduction. Ed. Janet Marstine. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 226-246.
The paper asks if virtual museums undermine or reinforce traditional conceptions of the authenticity of art works and museum visits and how museum websites are experienced. Virtual reality galleries are analyzed. Virtual and real museums seem to merge in rhetoric but there remain distinctions between real and virtual, original and copy.
Language: EN

Schweibenz, Werner
2006Accessibility - Why and how to Include People With Disabilities. Proceedings of the 14th International BOBCATSSS Symposium Information, Innovation, Responsibility: Information Professional in Network Society, Tallinn, Estonia, January 30 - February 1
http://scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de/volltexte/2008/1421/ (2015-10-05)
The paper provides an overview of what accessibility means, i.e. the ability to make use of the World Wide Web without restrictions or limitations which might be caused by physical, psychological or mental constraints such as problems with sight or hearing, body defects, dyslexia, etc. The Web Accessibility Guidelines provide some help and orientation for creating accessible Web sites. For the design process, personas as fictitious representations (archetypes) of disabled users can be used to represent their most characteristics, needs and goals.
Language: EN

Liew, Chern Li
2005Online Cultural Heritage Exhibitions. A Survey of Information Retrieval Features. In: Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 39 (1) 2005: 4-24.
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1465060 (2015-10-01)
The study offers a general review of browse and search facilites of 15 cultural heritage exhibitions on the Internet. It was conducted between February and June 2004 and includes libraries, archives and museums. It provides analysis, recommendations and possible improvements.
Language: EN

Nietzky, Petra
2005Dramaturgie, Narration, Digitale Szenografie - Kriterien für eine gelungene Online-Vermittlung. [Dramaturgy, Narration, Digital Scenography - Criteria for a well-done Online Presentation] Elektronische Bildverarbeitung & Kunst, Kultur, Historie. Konferenz
Museum web sites offer access. However, often databases and online galleries offer little added value for virtual visitors. Therefore, content has to be structured in a way that favours cognitive information processing by inspiring a positive emotional experience. Dramaturgy, narration, and digital scenography can be criteria for a well-done online presentation.
Language: GE

Soren, Barbara J.
2005Best Practices in Creating Quality Online Experiences for Museum Users. In: Museum Management and Curatorship, 20 (2) 2005: 131-148.
The project explores the issues of consistency and quality experiences for the Virtual Museum of Canada. The research plan consists of a literature review, a statistical analysis of data, and the design of an engagement factor for museum Web sites.
Language: EN

Spichiger, Lynne; Jacobson, Juliet
2005Telling an Old Story in a New Way. Raid on Deerfield: The Many Stories of 1704. Museums and the Web 2005. Proceedings from the International Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, April 13-17, 2005. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2005/papers/spichiger/spichiger.html (2015-10-05)
The Web site ‘The Raid on Deerfield: The Many Stories of 1704’ is a multi-cultural collaborative effort that reinterprets a historical event from the perspectives of five different groups. The multiple perspectives allows learners to move quickly and easily among the different perspectives, facilitates comparison and shows the story from conflicting points of view. Multiple paths through the content allow different kinds of inquiry. Special features allow for different learning styles and promote active engagement. A great example of storytelling.
Language: EN

Spierling, Ulrike
2005Interactive Digital Storytelling als eine Methode der Wissensvermittlung. [Interactive Digital Storytelling as a Means of Knowledge Transfer.] Knowledge Media Design. Theorie, Methodik, Praxis edited by Maximilian Eibl, Harald Reiterer, Peter Friedrich St
Stories are an old and wide-spread form of knowledge transfer between individuals, groups and generations in any culture across the world. The transferred knowledge includes not only facts but also implicit values and opinions. Successful stories need an audience that takes the role of the receiver and follows a strictly limited interaction. The story needs a reglemented structure to attract attention.
Language: EN

Thomas, Wendy A.; Carey, Sheila
2005Actual/Virtual Visits: What Are The Links? Museums and the Web 2005. Proceedings from the International Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, April 13-17, 2005. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2005/papers/thomas/thomas.html (2015-10-05)
The Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN) researches the needs of Web visitors and the correlation between visits to the virtual and the physical space. The survey findings confirm anecdotal information that there are links between on-line and in-person visits. Museums that put collections information and images on their Web sites will not reduce visits to the physical museum, and will likely enhance interest in personal visits to the museum.
Language: EN

Capodieci, Angelo B., Nicoletta di Blas, Paolo Paolini, Marco Speroni, and Davide Bolchini
2004Reading Web Pages to Visually Impaired People. Electronic Images and the Visual Arts - EVA 2004 Florence, 29 March - 2 April 2004. Conference Proceedings. Ed. Vito Cappellini and James Hemsley. Bologna: Pitagore Editrice. 316-321.
Project report of accessible web page design for visually impaired users. Design and structure of art content and verbal image descriptions according to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines.
Language: EN

Dalrymple, John, Roxane Shaughnessy, Barbara J. Soren, and Diane Wolfe
2004Developing Meaningful On-line Exhibitions. Cloth & Clay: Communicating Culture. Museums and the Web 2004. Proceed-ings from the International Conference, Arlington, Virginia/Washington DC, March 31-April 3, 2004. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatic
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2004/papers/dalrymple/dalrymple.html (2015-10-01)
Project report describing the design and evaluation (including front-end and formative audience research) of an online exhibitions on ceramics from the Gardiner Museum of Ceramic Art with related textiles from the collection of the Textile Museum of Canada.
Language: EN

Giaccardi, Elisa
2004Memory and Territory. New Forms of Virtuality for the Museum. Museums and the Web 2004. Proceedings from the International Conference, Arlington, VA, March 31-April 3, 2004 Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics
http://www.archimuse.com/mw2004/papers/giaccardi/giaccardi.html (2015-10-01)
Definition of the virtual museum as duplication and extension of reality offering opportunities for interactive access and interconnection. Case study of Virtual Museum of the Collective Memory of Lombardia Region (MUVI) with an emphasis on user involvement. Case study of The Nibelungen Museum at Worms as an example for virtualizing the collective heritage of the myth in a physical site.
Language: EN

Haley Goldman, Kate and David Schaller
2004Exploring Motivational Factors and Visitor Satisfaction in On-line Museum Visits. In: Museums and the Web 2004. Proceedings from the International Conference, Arlington, VA, March 31-April 3, 2004. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics.
http://www.archimuse.com/mw2004/papers/haleyGoldman/haleyGoldman.html (2015-10-01)
The paper is about understanding of online museum audiences and what they take with them from their visit. It reports on an on-line survey exploring motivation, learning, and meaning-making. The results give suggestions on how to enrich on-line experiences for museum visitors.
Language: EN

Lesser, Eric and Laurence Prusak
2004Creating Value with Knowledge. Insights from the IBM Institute for Business Value New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Organizations use storytelling for knowledge management because cognitive science research indicates that memorable information is more likely to be acted upon than is information that remains unconscious and not retrieved from memory. Memorable information is given more weight and is more likely to guide behavior. Because of the rich contextual details encoded in stories, they are ideal carriers of tacit dimensions of knowledge.
Language: EN

Rellie, Jemina
2004One Site Fits All: Balancing Priorities At Tate Online. Museums and the Web 2004. Proceedings from the International Conference, Arlington, Virginia / Washington DC, March 31-April 3, 2004. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics.
http://www.archimuse.com/mw2004/papers/rellie/rellie.html (2015-10-02)
Tate is made up of six sites, five physical institutions and Tate Online. The Web site is the primary on-line destination for all information about the organisation, it offers an on-line catalogue of the Tate Collection. The paper describes a substantial redesign of the Web site, the objectives, content guidelines, visitor profiling and site analysis.
Language: EN

Soren, Barbara J.; Lemelin, Nathalie
2004Cyberpals/Les cybercopains. A Look at Online Museum Visitor Experiences. In: Curator. The Museum Journal, 47 (1) 2004: 55-83.
This article examines in six case studies museum Web sites that offer good quality experiences to online users. The case studies show that there is considerable variety in the backgrounds, expertise, and training of people developing Web sites within institutions. Three case studies indicate that Web sites encourage visitors to switch between online and on-site museum visits, one not excluding the other.
Language: EN

Chalmers, Matthew and Areti Galani
2003Far Away Is Close At Hand. Shared Mixed Reality Museum Experiences for Local and Remote Museum Companions. In: International Conference on Hypermedia and Interactivity in Museums, École du Louvre, Paris, September 8-12, 2003. Paris: ICHIM
http://www.archimuse.com/publishing/ichim03/076C.pdf (2015-10-01)
Report on the combination of diverse technologies to support shared collaborative visits to museums, such as ubiquitous computing, virtual environments and hypermedia. Important aspects of the co-visiting experience of local and remote visitors.
Language: EN

Lehn, Dirk vom; Heath, Christian
2003Displacing the Object. Mobile Technologies and Interpretative Resources. International Conference on Hypermedia and Interactivity in Museums (ICHIM) in Paris, September 8-12, 2003. Paris: ICHIM. 1-15
The paper describes the ways in which visitors to a contemporary art gallery used novel interpretation devices to navigate an exhibition to explore particular works of art. It addresses the ways in which visitors used the device and the material it made available to examine objects, both alone and with others, and the consequences of the PDA for how people organized their visit.
Language: EN

Patel, Manjula, Martin White, Krzysztof Walczak and Patrick Sayd
2003Digitisation to Presentation: Building Virtual Museum Exhibitions.
http://opus.bath.ac.uk/21506/ (2015-10-02)
The paper deals with the ARCO project and describes the technical aspects of a system that creates digital surrogates through a novel stereo photogrammetry system resulting in 3D objects for virtual exhibitions.
Language: EN

Bernier, Roxane
2002The French Viewpoint. In: Museums and the Web 2002. Proceedings from the International Conference, Boston, MA, April 17-21, 2002. Pittsburgh, PA: Archives & Museum Informatics.
http://www.archimuse.com/mw2002/papers/bernier/bernier.html (2015-10-01)
The paper describes a study on virtual museums conducted in 1998 and 1999 with 37 French participants. The focus was on ergonomics, graphics, technological adds-on, sociability, and learning.
Language: EN

Foo, Schubert, Leong Chee Khoon, and Chennupati K. Ramaiah
2002The Design and Development of an Online Exhibition for Heritage Information Awareness. In: Museums and the Web 2002. Selected Papers From the Sixth International Conference, Boston, MA, April 17-21, 2002. Pittsburgh, PA: Archives & Museum Informatics
http://www.archimuse.com/mw2002/papers/ramaiah/ramaiah.html (2015-10-01)
A study conducting user evaluation of online exhibitions to examine aspects of their content, presentation, navigational structure, implementation issues. Respondents were 77 postgraduate students.
Language: EN

Frost, C. Olivia
2002When the Object is Digital: Properties of Digital Surrogate Objects and Implications for Learning. In: Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums, edited by Scott G. Paris. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
The paper discusses how the digital experience of an object does differ from the physical and how it does matter. Digital objects are more accessible and offer new opportunities for learning. However, the digital version is a reproduction of some kind. Nevertheless, digital surrogates may become an increasingly common forms of object experience, particularly when users are more accustomed to seeing digital representations.
Language: EN

Fry, Thomas K., Keith Curry Lance, Marti A. Cox, and Tammi Moe
2002A Comparison of Web-Based Library Catalogs and Museum Exhibits and Their Impacts on Actual Visits. A Focus Group Evaluation for the Colorado Digitization Project
http://www.lrs.org/documents/CDP/CDP_Report_2001.pdf (2015-10-01)
A study conducted in 2001 for the Colorado State Library and the University of Denver Library to find out how online catalogs exhibits influence actual visits. Focus group sessions with student, general user and hobbyist groups indicate that having access to digitized images would result in slightly more inclination to visit museums.
Language: EN

Hastings, Sam K. and Victoria Kravchyna
2002Informational Value of Museum Web Sites. First Monday - Peer- reviewed Journal on the Internet, 7 (2) 2002.
http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/929/851 (2015-10-01)
A project to investigate the virtual museum visitors needs. Literature review. An Internet-based survey was used to reach a broader audience and collect a diversity of data. The findings describe the kinds of information that users seek on museum Web sites.
Language: EN

Kalfatovic, Martin R.
2002Creating a winning online exhibition: A guide for libraries, archives, and museums, Chicago, American Library Association
The book describes best practice examples for online exhibitions of the Smithsonian Institution. The focus is on the difference between online exhibitions and digital collections, the types of online exhibitions, the idea and design of online exhibitions including technical aspects of current technologies.
Language: EN

Lehn, Dirk vom; Heath, Christian; Hindmarsh, John
2002Video-based Field Studies in Museums and Galleries. Visitor Studies Today! 5 (3)
Social interaction is critical to the museum experience. Computer-based interactives are wide-spread in museums, but yet there is little understanding as to how they affect the museum visit and communication and collaboration among visitors. Video-based studies were conducted to analyse visitor behaviour.
Language: EN

Müller, Klaus
2002Digital Watch. Museums’ Websites should be more than Databases. Museums Journal (UK), No 102, June 2002: 27-29.
Museums make hundreds of thousands of artifacts accessible through the Web. But to what end? Access alone does not convert these resources into useful content. The database has become the dominant way that museums present their collections to online visitors. As a result, museum websites offer very little of the experience of traditional museum spaces. However, museums are experts in framing objects in new contexts, and the web is just one of them. However, the web creates a new experiential space.
Language: EN

Müller, Klaus
2002Museums and Virtuality. In: Curator 45 (1) 2002: 21-33.
Museums are struggling to find the connection between the reality of an artifact and its virtual representation. In a world where experiences are increasingly produced, translated, or shaped by media, museums often seem to be the only places to find the authentic. However, they often use technology and media to enhance the visitor experience. Seven features for online exhibitions.
Language: EN

Breiteneder, Christian, Hubert Platzer, Martin Hitz, and Johann Stockinger
2001Bhutan--A Virtual Exhibition. Museums and the Web 2001. Proceedings from the International Conference, Seattle, WA, March 14-17, 2001 Pittsburgh, PA: Archives & Museum Informatics
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2001/papers/breiteneder1/breiteneder.html (2015-10-01)
Project report of an online exhibition that offers both a high-tech and a low-tech version. Winner of the 2001 Museums and the Web Award.
Language: EN

Cameron, Fiona
2001Wired Collections - The Next Generation. Museum Management and Curatorship, 19 (3) 2001: 309-315.
Discussion of pros and cons of online museum information design issues such as access by search of fielded information, use of plug-ins, etc.
Language: EN

Davies, Roderick
2001Overcoming Barriers to Visiting. Raising Awareness of, and Providing Orientation and Navigation To, A Museum and its Collections Through New Technologies. Museum Management and Curatorship, 19 (3) 2001: 283-295.
The article describes the importance of new technologies for participation and how museums can break down barriers which hinder access to museums.
Language: EN

Prensky, Marc
2001Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, NCB University Press, Vol. 9 No. 5
http://www.employmentandlaborinsider.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/328/2015/05/5.7.15.Prensky-Digital-Natives-Digital-Immigrants-Part1.pdf (2015-10-05)
How digital imigrants and digital natives learn and study.
Language: EN

Douma, Michael
2000Lessons learned from WebExhibits.org. Practical suggestions for good design. In: Museums and the Web 2000. Proceedings from the International Conference, Minneapolis, MN, April 16-19, 2000. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics.
http://www.archimuse.com/mw2000/papers/douma/douma.html (2015-10-01)
The paper discusses what makes a good online exhibit and what components make it successful. Important are content, overall structure and approach, organization, knowledge about the audience. In addition it suggests topics for evaluation.
Language: EN

Johnson, Neal B.
2000Tracking the Virtual Visitor. A Report From the National Gallery of Art. Museum News 79 (2) 2000: 42-45, 67-71.
A study conducted by the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, describing the re-design of the Web site and an online exhibition using Web logs as a tool for Web audience analysis.
Language: EN

Sayre, Scott, Mike Dust and Joan Gorman
2000Sharing the Experience: The Building of a Successful Online/On-site Exhibition. Museums and the Web 2000. Proceedings from the International Conference, Minneapolis, MN, April 16-19, 2000. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2000/papers/sayre/sayre.html (2015-10-05)
The paper describes a restoration project of a large 17th Century Italian altarpiece at the Minneapolis Institute of Art that combining an on-site exhibition with an online exhibition. During the restoration, visitors could come on-site, watch the conservators and talk to them, while virtual visitors could follow the process on the Web. Online and on-site exhibitions mutually benefit from their own cross marketing. After the exhibition, the restoration online program became a permanent "behind the scenes" presentation.
Language: EN

Schuck-Wersig, Petra
2000Deutsche Museen im Internet. [German Museums on the Internet.] Handbuch Kulturmanagement. Stuttgart
A report about the situation in the late 1990s identifying the major online activities of German museums. Examples of museum homepages. Critique of ambitious use of technology without considering user needs. "Be there or be square" is not enough, museums have to invest in design, programming and content.
Language: GE

Streten, Katie
2000Honoured Guests - Towards a Visitor-Centred Web Experience. Museums and the Web 2000. Selected Papers From the Forth International Conference, Minneapolis, April 17-19, 2000 Pittsburgh, PA: Archives & Museum Informatics
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2000/papers/streten/streten.html (2015-10-05)
The paper provides an analysis of the Science Museum web site based on server statistics (log files), qualitative studies (card sorting), and data from existing studies. The findings suggest that content has be accessible and understandable in order to reach the intended audience. Visitor studies will help to move towards more visitor-centric museum websites.
Language: EN

Cooper, Alan
1999The Inmates are Running the Asylum. Why High-tech Products Drive Us Crazy and How to Restore the Sanity. Indianapolis, 1999, IN: Sams
Introduction to user-oriented information design. Description of the personas method that uses archetypical characters representing target groups to accomplish user-centred products.

- informatics
Language: EN

Dietz, Steve
1999Telling Stories: Procedural Authorship and Extracting Meaning from Museum Databases. Museums and Web 1999. Proceedings from the International Conference, New Orleans, LA, March 11-14, 1999 Pittsburgh, PA: Archives and Museums Informatics
http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw99/papers/dietz/dietz.html (2015-10-01)
The Web is critical to the success of providing access to museum information integrated across knowledge domains, telling educational stories, and creating dynamic and compelling interactive exhibitions. Museum information systems must evolve from object-centric collection management systems to context capable content management systems. The museum experience and museum objects will be structured by narratives. Examples and narration theory.
Language: EN

Nentwig, Lutz
1999LeMO: A virtual exhibition of 20th century German history
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389128699000997 (2015-10-01)
The article describes the LeMO project, a multimedia online information system on 20th century German history. Project partners are the German Historical Museum in Berlin, the Haus der Geschichte of the Federal Republic of Germany in Bonn and the Fraunhofer Institute for Software and Systems Engineering (ISST) in Dortmund. Apart from multimedia information, LeMO offers 3D environments. The paper describes the concept and implementation from the perspective of 1998.
Language: EN

Booth, Ben
1998Understanding the Information Needs of Visitors to Museums. Museum Management and Curatorship, 17 (2) 1998: 139-157.
Visitor profiles of the Science Museum, London. Evaluation of the gallery information system. Analysis of enquiries to the Museum. A literature review of external information access. Three different groups of visitors and information needs. Requirements and delivery of visitor information.
Language: EN

Booth, Ben
1998Information for Visitors to Cultural Attractions. In: Journal of Information Science, 24 (5) 1998: 291-303.
Visitor profiles and social classification by groups at the Science Museum, London. Virtual visits as a substitute for in person visits. Cost estimates and benefits for providing information for general and specialist visitors.
Language: EN

Hein, George E.
1998Learning in the Museum. (Museums Meanings) London: Routledge.
Based on constructivism as an educational theory the book identifies learning styles of visitors. Meaning making is based on interests and background the visitors bring with them and visitor reactions to the topics and objects provided by the museum as intended messages. Traditional learning is not possible inside the museum as it is a constructivist museum.
Language: EN

Manovich, Lev
1998Database as a Symbolic Form. nettime - mailing list for networked cultures, politics, and tactics.
http://www.nettime.org/Lists-Archives/nettime-l-9812/msg00041.html (2015-10-01)
not commented yet
Language: EN

Mintz, Ann
1998Media and Museums: A Museum Perspective. The Virtual and the Real. Media in the Museum. Ed. Selma Thomas and Ann Mintz. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums. 147-171.
Museums have to utilize information technology without giving up our core identity: to embrace the virtual without abandoning the real. The museum is based on reality. Information technology is a means, not an end. It can enhance the experience of the real thing in wonderful, meaningful ways; it cannot replace it. These technologies have enormous potential, but it would be foolish to choose simulations over direct experiences with reality. In this media-saturated world, the museum may be more important than ever.
Language: EN

Donovan, Kevin
1997The Best of Intentions: Public Access, the Web and the Evolution of Museum Automation. Museums and the Web 1997. Selected Papers from the First International Conference, Los Angeles, CA, March 16-19, 1997. Pittsburgh, PA: Archives & Museum Informatic
In order to facilitate public access, museums have to add value to the data they provide. On the Web, an object-centric approach does not make sense. Instead of leading with the object, lead with the story of the culture, historical context, people and places and their importance by telling stories with objects woven through them.
Language: EN

Johnston, Leslie and Katherine Jones-Garmil
1997So You Want to Build a Web Site
Hints for building a museum Web site. The paper is of historical interest only.
Language: EN

Csikszentmihaly, Mihaly and Kim Hermanson
1995Intrinsic Motivation in Museums. What Makes Visitors Want to Learn? Museum News 74, May/June 1995: 34-37 and 59-61.
Analysis of human motivation in relation to learning. Origins of intrinsic motivation, the role of curiosity and interest for growing into a more extensive learning interaction resulting in a so-called flow experience. Conditions that support flow activities. museums provide a place for shared experiences having a distinct advantage over solitary media-induced experiences.
Language: EN

Hooper-Greenhill, Eilean
1994Museum Communication. An Introductory Essay. The Educational Role of the Museum edited by E. Hooper-Greenhill. London. 9-16.
The paper raises the question who "the general public" is and suggests to apply the concept of target groups from marketing instead because the museums uses both interpersonal, face-to-face communication and mass communication.
Language: EN

MacDonald, George and Stephen Alsford
1991The Museum as Information Utility. Museum Management and Curatorship. 10/1991: 305-311.
Museums have to adapt to the ‘Information Society’ and should think of the museum business as information rather than as artifacts. As information providers they have to layer information, use a range of media to disseminate it, and involve visitors who are not passive but participative in shaping their experiences.
Language: EN

Greenhalgh, Michael
1989Museum Databases, HELP Systems and End-User. Museum Management and Curatorship, 8 1989: 33-43.
The paper argues that the constructors of computerized databases tend to ignore the needs of potential end-users and suggests that museum databases can be designed to meet the needs both of curators and the general public. The problem is that there is neither a ‘typical’ end-user nor a ‘typical’ museum collection. Possible solutions are online help systems and thesauri.
Language: EN

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